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The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 | Middle Tennessee State University us digital millennium copyright act 1998

The statute also establishes procedures for proper notification, and rules as to its effect. (Section 512(c)(3)). Under the notice and takedown procedure, a copyright owner submits a notification under penalty of perjury, including a list of specified elements, to the service provider's designated agent. Failure to comply substantially with the statutory requirements means that the notification will not be considered in determining the requisite level of knowledge by the service provider. If, upon receiving a proper notification, the service provider promptly removes or blocks access to the material identified in the notification, the provider is exempt from monetary liability. In addition, the provider is protected from any liability to any person for claims based on its having taken down the material. (Section 512(g)(1)).

In order to protect against the possibility of erroneous or fraudulent notifications, certain safeguards are built into section 512. Subsection (g)(1) gives the subscriber the opportunity to respond to the notice and takedown by filing a counter notification. In order to qualify for the protection against liability for taking down material, the service provider must promptly notify the subscriber that it has removed or disabled access to the material. If the subscriber serves a counter notification complying with statutory requirements, including a statement under penalty of perjury that the material was removed or disabled through mistake or misidentification, then unless the copyright owner files an action seeking a court order against the subscriber, the service provider must put the material back up within 10-14 business days after receiving the counter notification.

Penalties are provided for knowing material misrepresentations in either a notice or a counter notice. Any person who knowingly materially misrepresents that material is infringing or that it was removed or blocked through mistake or misidentification, is liable for any resulting damages (including costs and attorneys' fees) incurred by the alleged infringer, the copyright owner or its licensee, or the service provider. (Section 512(f)).

Limitation for Information Location Tools

Section 512(d) relates to hyperlinks online directories, search engines and the like. It limits liability for the acts of referring or linking users to a site that contains infringing material by using such information location tools, if the following conditions are met:

The provider must not have the requisite level of knowledge that the material is infringing. The knowledge standard is the same as under the limitation for information residing on systems or networks. If the provider has the right and ability to control the infringing activity, the provider must not receive a financial benefit directly attributable to the activity. Upon receiving a notification of claimed infringement, the provider must expeditiously take down or block access to the material.

These are essentially the same conditions that apply under the previous limitation, with some differences in the notification requirements. The provisions establishing safeguards against the possibility of erroneous or fraudulent notifications, as discussed above, as well as those protecting the provider against claims based on having taken down the material apply to this limitation. (Sections 512(f)-(g)).

Special Rules Regarding Liability of Nonprofit Educational Institutions

Section 512(e) determines when the actions or knowledge of a faculty member or graduate student employee who is performing a teaching or research function may affect the eligibility of a nonprofit educational institution for one of the four limitations on liability As to the limitations for transitory communications or system caching, the faculty member or student shall be considered a "person other than the provider," so as to avoid disqualifying the institution from eligibility. As to the other limitations, the knowledge or awareness of the faculty member or student will not be attributed to the institution. The following conditions must be met

the faculty member or graduate student's infringing activities do not involve providing online access to course materials that were required or recommended during the past three years; the institution has not received more than two notifications over the past three years that the faculty member or graduate student was infringing, and the institution provides all of its users with informational materials describing and promoting compliance with copyright law. Title III: Computer Maintenance or Repair

Title III expands the existing exemption relating to computer programs in section 117 of the Copyright Act, which allows the owner of a copy of a program to make reproductions or adaptations when necessary to use the program in conjunction with a computer. The amendment permits the owner or lessee of a computer to make or authorize the making of a copy of a computer program in the course of maintaining or repairing that computer. The exemption only permits a copy that is made automatically when a computer is activated, and only if the computer already lawfully contains an authorized copy of the program The new copy cannot be used in any other manner and must be destroyed immediately after the maintenance or repair is completed.

Title IV. Miscellaneous Provisions Clarification of the Authority of the Copyright Office

Section 401(b), adds language to section 701 of the Copyright Act confirming the Copyright Office's authority to continue to perform the policy and international functions that it has carried out for decade's under its existing general authority.

Ephemeral Recordings for Broadcasters

Section 112 of the Copyright Act grants an exemption for the making of "ephemeral recordings." These are recordings made in order to facilitate a transmission. Under this exemption, for example, a radio station can record a set of songs and broadcast from the new recording rather than from the original CDs (which would have to be changed "on the fly" during the course of a broadcast).

As it existed prior to enactment of the DMCA section 112 permitted a transmitting organization to make and retain for up to six months (hence the term "ephemeral") no more than one copy of a work if it was entitled to transmit a public performance or display of the work either under a license or by virtue of the fact that there is no general public performance right in sound recordings (as distinguished from musical works).

The Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act of 1995 (DPRA) created, for the first time in US. copyright law, a limited public performance right in sound recordings. The right only covers public performances by means of digital transmission and is subject to an exemption for digital broadcasts (i.e., transmissions by FCC licensed terrestrial broadcast stations) and a statutory license for certain subscription transmissions that are not made on demand (i.e., in response to the specific request of a recipient)

Section 402 of the DMCA expands the section 112 exemption to include recordings that are made to facilitate the digital transmission of a sound recording where the transmission is made under the DPRA's exemption for digital broadcasts or statutory license. As amended section 112 also permits in some circumstances the circumvention of access control technologies in order to enable an organization to make an ephemeral recording.

Distance Education Study

In the course of consideration of the DMCA, legislators expressed an interest in amending the Copyright Act to promote distance education, possibly through an expansion of the existing exception for instructional broadcasting in section 110(2).Section 403 of the DMCA directs the ' e Copyright Office to consult with affected parties and make recommendations to Congress on how to promote distance education through digital technologies. The Office must report to Congress within six months of enactment.

The Copyright Office is directed to consider the following issues:

The need for a new exemption; Categories of works to be included in any exemption; Appropriate quantitative limitations on the portions of works that may be used under any exemption; Which parties should be eligible for any exemption; Which parties should be eligible recipients of distance education material under any exemption; The extent to which use of technological protection measures should be mandated as a condition of eligibility for any exemption; The extent to tinelinw. outlet moncler milano stazione centralewhich the availability of licenses should be considered in assessing eligibility for any exemption; and Other issues as appropriate. Exemption for Nonprofit Libraries and Archives

Section 404 of the DMCA amends the exemption for nonprofit libraries and archives in section 108 of the Copyright Act to accommodate digital technologies and evolving preservation practices. Prior to enactment of the DMCA, section 108 permitted such libraries and archives to make a single facsimile (Le., not digital) copy of a work for purposes of preservation or interlibrary loan. As amended, section 108 permits up to three copies, which may be digital, provided that digital copies are not made available to the public outside the library premises. In addition, the amended section permits such a library or archive to copy a work into a new format if the original format becomes obsolete- that 'is, the machine or device used to render the work perceptible is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.

Webcasting Amendments to the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings

As discussed above, in 1995 Congress enacted the DPRA creating a performance right in sound recordings that is limited to digital transmissions Under that legislation, three categories of digital transmissions were addressed: broadcast transmissions, which were exempted from. the performance right; subscription transmissions, which were generally subject to a statutory license; and on-demand transmissions, which were subject to the full exclusive right. Broadcast transmissions under the DPRA are transmissions made by FCC-licensed terrestrial broadcast stations.

In the past several years, a number of entities have begun making digital transmissions of sound recordings over the Internet using streaming audio technologies. This activity does not fall squarely within any of the three categories that were addressed in the DPRA. Section 405 of the DMCA amends the DPRA, expanding the statutory license for subscription transmissions to include webcasting as a new category of "eligible nonsubscription transmissions."

In addition to expanding the scope of the statutory license, the DMCA revises the criteria that any entity must meet in order to be eligible for the license (other than those who are subject to a grandfather clause, leaving the existing criteria intact). It revises the considerations for setting rates as well (again, subject to a grandfather clause), directing arbitration panels convened under the law to set the royalty rates at fair market value.

This provision of the DMCA also creates a new statutory license for making ephemeral recordings. As indicated above, section 402 of the DMCA amends section 112 of the Copyright Act to permit the making of a single ephemeral recording to facilitate the digital transmission of sound recording that is permitted either under the DPRA's broadcasting exemption or statutory license. Transmitting organizations that wish to make more than the single ephemeral recording of a sound recording that is permitted under the outright exemption in section 112 are now eligible for a statutory license to make such additional ephemeral recordings. In addition, the new statutory license applies to the making of ephemeral recordings by transmitting organizations other than broadcasters who are exempt from the digital performance right, who are not covered by the expanded exemption in section 402 of the DMCA.

Assumption of Contractual Obligations upon Transfers of Rights in Motion Pictures

Section 416 addresses concerns about the ability of writers, directors and screen actors to obtain residual payments for the exploitation of motion pictures in situations where the producer is no longer able to make these payments. "Me guilds' collective bargaining agreements currently require producers to obtain assumption agreements from distributors in certain circumstances, by which the distributor assumes the producer's obligation to make such residual payments. Some production companies apparently do not always do so, leaving the guilds without contractual privity enabling them to seek recourse from the distributor.

The DMCA adds a new chapter to Title 28of the US. Code that imposes on transferees those obligations to make residual payments that the producer would be required to have the transferee assume under the relevant collective bargaining agreement. The obligations attach only if the distributor knew or had reason to know that the motion picture was produced subject to a collective bargaining agreement or in. the event of a court order confirming an arbitration award under the collective bargaining agreement that the producer cannot satisfy within ninety days. There are two classes of transfers that are excluded from the scope of this provision, The first is transfers limited to public performance rights, and the second is grants of security interests, along with any subsequent transfers from the security interest holder.

The provision also directs the Comptroller General in consultation with the Register of Copyrights, to conduct a study on the conditions in the motion picture industry that gave rise to this provision, and the impact of the provision on the industry. The study is due two years from enactment.

Title V: Protection of Certain Original Designs

Title V of the DMCA, entitled the Vessel Hull Design Protection Act (VHDPA), adds a new chapter 13 to Title 17 of the US. Code. It creates a new system for protecting original designs of certain useful articles that make the article attractive or distinctive in appearance. For purposes of the VHDPA, "useful articles" are limited to the hulls (including the decks) of vessels no longer than 200 feet.

A design is protected under the VHDPA as soon as a useful article embodying the design is made public or a registration for the design is published. Protection is lost if an application for registration is not made within two years after a design is first made public, but a design is not registrable if it has been made public more than one year before the date of the application for registration. Once registered, protection continues for ten years from the date protection begins

The VHDPA is subject to a legislative sunset: the Act expires two years from enactment (October 28, 2000). The Copyright Office is directed to conduct two joint studies with the Patent and Trademark Office- the first by October 28, 1999 and the second by October 28, 2000-- evaluating the impact of the VHDPA.

Effective Dates

Most provisions of the DMCA are effective on the date of enactment. There are, however, several exceptions. The technical amendments in Title I that relate to eligibility of works for protection under U.S. copyright law by virtue of the new WIPO treaties do not take effect until the relevant treaty comes into force.

Similarly, restoration of copyright protection for such works does not become effective until the relevant treaty comes into force. The prohibition on the act of circumvention of access control measures does not take effect until two years from enactment (October 28, 2000).

1 Pub. L No. 105-304,112 Stat. 2860 (Oct. 28,1998).

2 "Copying" is used in this context as shorthand for the exercise of any of the exclusive rights of an author under section 106 of the Copyright Act. Consequently, a technological measure that prevents unauthorized distribution or public performance of a work would fall in this second category.

3 The Fairness in Musical Licensing Act, Title II of Pub. L. No. 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827, 2830-34 (Oct. 27, 1998) also a" a new section 512 to the Copyright Act. Ibis duplication of section numbers will need to be corrected in a technical amendments bill.


us digital millennium copyright act 1998

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The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Passed on October 12, 1998, the DMCA amended Title 17 of the United States Code to extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of online services for copyright infringement by their users.

View Digital Millennium Copyright Act

Related Resources Copyright Law Digital Millennium Copyright Act (PDF, 277 KB, 60 pages, January 1999) U.S. Patent Law, U.S. Code 35, Chapter 26 Copyright.gov United States Government Works and Copyright Act of 1976 (MS Word, 16 KB, 2 pages, June 2011)

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The owner must also swear that any information obtained through the subpoena will only be used for the purpose of protecting its rights under Section 512.

If the OSP is served with such a subpoena after or at the same time as a valid takedown notice, under Part (h)(2)(A) it must expeditiously provide the information required by the subpoena.

In 2003, the RIAA appeared to be seeking subpoenas and serving takedown notices which did not comply with these requirements, notably using the subpoena provisions for 512(a) situations, which do not provide for them.

On 20 December 2003, the DSL ISP Verizon prevailed on appeal in its case seeking to prevent the use of this section for transitory network communications, the decision reversing a court order to supply customer details. [22] The appeal decision accepted the argument that the key distinction was the location of the files, with this section applying only when the material is stored on equipment controlled by the OSP. However, in response, RIAA member labels turned to a different method to acquire their desired information. They began suing multiple "Doe" defendants at a time and issuing third-party discovery subpoenas to ISPs for the customer details.

On 6 October 2003 Charter Communications became the first cable Internet provider to challenge the RIAA use of this provision, [23] when it filed for a motion to quash the subpoenas to obtain the identities of 150 of its customers. Although Charter Communications initially lost this motion and was forced to turn over the identities of the requested customers, a later appeal ruled that the motion to quash should have been upheld. [24]

§ 512(i) Conditions for Eligibility [ edit ]

Section 512(i) outlines the general requirements for a grant of immunity– OSPs must implement an account termination policy for repeat infringers, must inform their users of this policy, and must accommodate standard copy protection systems.

It is prudent for anyone receiving a notification for distributing allegedly infringing material to check the validity of the notice and remind their ISP, if appropriate, that the DMCA only requires action under this clause for valid notices of copyright infringement. On November 26, 2014 BMG Rights Management (US) LLC and Round Hill Music LP filed suit against Cox Communications claiming that Cox was ineligible for Safe Harbor under 512 (i) based on evidence provided by Rightscorp, Inc. [25]

§ 512(j) Injunctions [ edit ]

Section 512(j) describes the forms of injunctive (i.e. court order) relief available to copyright holders. Even though OSPs have immunity from monetary damages under Section 512, they may be compelled by copyright holders, in appropriate situations, to stop providing access to infringing material or to terminate the account of a particular infringer.

§ 512(k) Definitions [ edit ]

Section 512(k) defines "service provider" and "monetary relief."

§ 512(l) Other Defenses Available [ edit ]

Section 512(l) notes that a service provider's ineligibility for a safe harbor from monetary damages under this section does not affect the validity of any other legal defenses that may be applicable (notably the CDA, although it isn’t specifically identified).

§ 512(m) Protection of Privacy [ edit ]

Section 512(m) notes that OSPs retain the protections of parts (a) through (d) even if they don't monitor their service looking for infringing activity, as long as they comply Section 512(i)'s general requirements relating to the institution of account termination policies for infringers and accommodation of copy protection systems. Furthermore, OSP's are not required to remove or disable access to material if doing so would break another law.

§ 512(n) Independent Construction of Safe Harbors [ edit ]

Section 512(n) states that the limitations on liability in parts (a), (b), (c) and (d) apply independently. Hence, the fact that an OSP qualifies for a limitation on liability under one subsection has no impact on whether the OSP qualifies for a limitation under a different subsection. This is because subsections (a), (b), (c), and (d) describe separate and distinct functions.

Criticism [ edit ]

The past decade of experience with the safe harbor provisions has shown them to be reasonably effective. [26] [27] Copyright holders have the incentive to monitor Internet sites for offending material, and to send ISPs notifications where appropriate, of material that should be taken down. ISPs have incentive to cooperate with copyright holders and terminate the accounts of repeat infringers on pain of forfeiting the safe harbor created by OCILLA. At the same time, copyright holders are deterred from improperly sending out notices by provisions that make them liable for resulting damages, and also by bad publicity.

That is not to say that OCILLA functions perfectly in practice. There are several problems resulting from imperfect incentives created by the law, from the complexity and requirements of the counter-notice procedures, and from evolving Web Technology.

Improper removal of content [ edit ]

There is some evidence that ISPs tend to quickly take down allegedly infringing content on request by copyright holders, in situations where the content is actually non-infringing and should be preserved. [28] [29] This may be because ISPs have much more to lose by forfeiting their safe harbor than by angering a user whose content is improperly removed.

Chilling Effects estimates that OSPs remove allegedly offending content even though approximately 60% of all takedown notices are flawed. Notices can be flawed in several ways. Many fail to follow the requirements of the statute. Others ask for material to be taken down for reasons such as trademark infringement and defamation that are unrelated to copyright infringement. [30]

Ineffective counter-notice procedure [ edit ]

There is evidence of problems with the counter-notice procedure, arising from its complexity and also because ISPs are not required to inform users of its existence. According to Chilling Effects , while Google has taken hundreds of sites out of its index because of DMCA requests, not a single person has filed a counter-notice or received a counter-notice from any other OSP.

This may result from the inherent imbalance in prerequisites for the original complaint and the counter-notice. To get content removed, copyright holder Bob need only claim a good-faith belief that neither he nor the law has authorized the use. Bob is not subject to penalties for perjury. In contrast, to get access to content re-enabled, Alice must claim a good faith belief under penalty of perjury that the material was mistakenly taken down. This allows for copyright holders to send out take-down notices without incurring much liability; to get the sites back up, the recipients might need to expend considerably more resources. Section 512(f) makes the sender of an invalid claim liable for the damages resulting from the content's improper removal, including legal fees, but that remedy is not always practical.

Furthermore, ISP's tend to remove allegedly offending material immediately, while there is a 10- to 14-day delay before the ISP re-enables access in response to a counter-notice. For example, if a website advertised an upcoming labor protest outside BlameCo, BlameCo could send a DMCA notice to the site's ISP alleging copyright infringement of their name or logo a week before the protest. The site would then be disabled; even if the site's owners immediately filed a counter-notice, access would not be re-enabled until after the protest, too late to be useful.

ISP's may also disregard counter-notices. Section 512(g) of the DMCA shields an ISP from liability to its customer for a DMCA takedown, if the ISP restores removed content following a counter-notice. In practice, however, an ISP may disregard the counter-notice, and instead rely on its own terms of service to shield itself from liability to its customer. For example, since April 2013, YouTube refuses to restore some counter-noticed content, citing an agreement YouTube made with third-party music content owners. [31] [32]

Additionally, there is no public record of takedown requests and counter-notices. This prevents the public from seeing how the process is used. ( Chilling Effects has tried to make up for this shortcoming, but, so far, few OSPs besides Google submit their takedown notices.)

Web 2.0 and new technologies [ edit ]

There have been recent claims [33] that the DMCA-embedded concepts of direct financial benefit, interference with standard technical measures, and the legislative red flag test for identifying infringing material are significantly challenged by the explosion of user-generated content unleashed by Web 2.0 technologies.

Related laws [ edit ]

The European Union's Electronic Commerce directive , Article 14, contains limited liability provisions for online hosts which provide the legal basis for notice and takedown in the EU. France's Digital Economy Law ("Loi relative à l'économie numérique") is an example of an implementation of this directive, as is Finland's "Laki tietoyhteiskunnan palvelujen tarjoamisesta."

In Korea, the analogous law is Section 102 (Limitation of OSP Liabilities) and Section 103 (Takedown) of Copyright Law of Korea.

In Taiwan, Republic of China , the analogous law is Chapter VI-1 of the Copyright Act. [34]

See also [ edit ] Related US laws The "No Electronic Theft" ( NET ) Act Copyright Term Extension Act (1998) DMCA (1998) In re Aimster Copyright Litigation Amaretto Ranch Breedables, LLC v. Ozimals, Inc. References [ edit ] ^ 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty Text ^ a b 17 U.S.C. § 512(i)(1)(A) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(i)(1)(B) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(a) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(b) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(c) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(d) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(C)(2) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(h)(5) ^ A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001). ^ Ellison v. Robertson, 357 F.3d 1072 (9th Cir. 2004). ^ a b c H.R. Rep. No. 105-551, at 53 (1998). ^ 17 U.S.C. § (512(c)(3)(A)(i-vi)) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(1)(C) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(3)(B)(ii) ^ Perfect 10, Inc. v. CCBill, LLC , 488 F.3d 1102, 1113 (9th Cir. 2007). ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(g)(2)(A) ^ 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(1)(A)(ii) ^ a b Online Policy Group v. Diebold , 337 F. Supp. 2d 1195 (N.D. Cal. 2004). ^ "Copyright, Peer-to-Peer File Sharing and DMCA Subpoenas" . Nacua Notes . 6 November 2003.   ^ "University Administrative Interests in Copyright" . Copyright Crash Course . 2007.   ^ Case documents EFF Archive of RIAA v. Verizon documents , Verizon's Previous Legal Briefs and Court Rulings . ^ Stefanie Olsen, Charter files suit against RIAA CNET News (Oct. 6, 2003). ^ In re: Charter Commc'ns, Inc. Subpoena Enforcement Matter (8th Cir. 2005). ^ "COX COMMUNICATIONS SUED FOR NOT DISCONNECTING PIRATES" . TorrentFreak . Retrieved November 28, 2014 .   ^ Pamela Samuelson et al., A Reverse Notice and Takedown Regime to Enable Fair Uses of Technically Protected Copyrighted Works , 22 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 981, 993 (2007). ^ 10 Years Later, Misunderstood DMCA is the Law That Saved the Web , Wired (Oct. 2008). ^ Julian Sanchez, Google's DMCA takedowns leaving Blogger users high and dry , Ars Technica (Mar. 8, 2009). ^ Nate Anderson, Scientology fights critics with 4,000 DMCA takedown notices , Ars Technica (Sep. 8, 2008). ^ , Ahrens, Green, McSherry and Stoltz; [1] , Center for Internet & Society Stanford Law School and Electronic Frontier Foundation (November 13, 2013). ^ McKay, Patrick (April 4, 2013). "YouTube Refuses to Honor DMCA Counter-Notices" . Fair Use Tube.org . Retrieved July 23, 2013 .   ^ "Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube's contractual obligations" . YouTube Help . April 2, 2013 . Retrieved July 23, 2013 .   ^ Brandon Brown, Fortifying the Safe Harbors: Reevaluating the DMCA in a Web 2.0 World , 23 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 437, 438 (2008). ^ Ministry of Justice (Republic of China) : Chapter VI-1 Limitations on Liability for Internet Service Providers of the Copyright Act External links [ edit ] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act General [ edit ] 17 U.S.C.   § 512 , Text of OCILLA U.S. Copyright Office Summary of the DMCA Chilling Effect's FAQs , about DMCA Safe Harbor Provisions U.S. Copyright Office List , of Designated Agents for Infringement Notification Using OCILLA [ edit ] DMCA Guide , with sample copyright infringement notices and counter-notices Using DMCA to Protect Your Content , Lunar Legal (June 2008) How to File a DMCA Copyright Infringement Notice , Marketingdock.com Responding to Notices of Alleged Infringement , University of Texas Case law [ edit ] Diehl v. Crook , Electronic Frontier Foundation's successful 2006 suit against an illegal takedown notice Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City Studios Inc. , 464 U.S. 417 (1984). Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom On-Line Commc'n Servs., Inc. , 907 F. Supp. 1361 (N.D. Cal. 1995). Costar Group, Inc. v. Loopnet, Inc. , 373 F.3d 544 (4th Cir. 2004). Online Policy Group et al. v. Diebold, Inc. , 337 F.Supp.2d 1195 (N.D. Cal. 2004). A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc. , 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001). Perfect 10, Inc. v. CCBill, LLC , 488 F.3d 1102 (9th Cir. 2007). Retrieved from " https://en./w/index.php?title=Online_Copyright_Infringement_Liability_Limitation_Act&oldid=787774760 " Categories : 1998 in law 1998 in the United States United States federal computing legislation United States federal copyright legislation 105th United States Congress Digital Millennium Copyright Act Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing style editing from August 2011 All articles needing style editing